The Evolution of Golf Clubs

Golf has come a long way since it was first developed in the 1800s. The game has become more sophisticated over the years, with courses becoming tougher and technologies becoming more advanced. At the same time, more people are getting engaged in the game and competitions are becoming better and stronger. One of the things that sped up the evolution of the game of golf is the technology involved in the equipment. One piece of equipment in particular that benefited from technological advances are golf clubs. This article will put this evolution to perspective.

The real origins of golf are being disputed by a number of historians. The earliest signs of the game are traced in China. In the game of Chui wan, balls are hit into holes using clubs that are bejeweled. Clubs being excavated are believed to have been developed anywhere between the 9th and 12th centuries. The first evidence of modern golf is seen in Europe in the 14th century. While evidences of the game can also be seen in the Netherlands, it is Scotland that is credited for creating golf as we know it. As for the clubs, the material of choice back in the day is wood.


When golf made its way to the United States in the 1800s, the game was developed further. Together with this development, the sophistication of golf clubs also significantly increased. During this time, the most common wood used to construct these clubs is wood from hickory trees. In the same century, golfers also recognized that the head, the part that strikes the ball, should be made of a harder material both for propelling the ball far and for longer durability. Because of this, persimmon, a harder, denser kind of wood, is used for creating the heads.

It won’t be long before steel, the most basic material used for making golf clubs nowadays, is incorporated into the construction. It first started with the heads with the development of drop forging technology. With drop forging, mass produced steel heads became possible. It won’t be long until steel actually makes it as a component in shafts. In 1931, Billy Burke won the US Open while using steel-shafted clubs that are painted to resemble wood. It has given him a major advantage as steel is more durable and relays force to the ball more efficiently.

By 1939, it has been mandated that golfers can only carry up to 14 clubs with him/her in a single round. This is considered a huge shift at the time, as a number of golfers use up to 30 different kinds of clubs back in the day. This development’s direct benefit is that the contents of a golfer’s bag are drastically reduced. At the same time, it forced the makers to create a standard in which clubs are made. This is the time when particular parameters for the crafting of drivers, irons, wedges, and putters have been established. It also paved the way for the creation of hybrid clubs.

Since the 1950s, golf club makers have dabbled with the technology of golf clubs with the aim of improving its performance. Thru various adjustments, they allowed golfers to strike the ball with higher strength and accuracy. Lightweight components such as aluminum and graphite became feasible alternatives for steel, especially for women and the elderly. Later on, advanced materials such as carbon fiber and composite resin made it to the construction of golf clubs. Even the weight distribution of the club construction has been tinkered to help the golfer hit his/her target straight. Nowadays, clubs that have adaptable heads are currently being developed.

With people’s knowledge of the game and technology expanding, there are more technologies that are expected to come in the horizon. In the aim to be the best, club makers would put all the stops to ensure theirs are the best golf clubs on the market. Of course, the biggest winners of this continuing evolution are the players.

The Challenge In Challenge Coins

Challenge coins are being given out these days for merit, an upgrade in the ranking, acknowledgement of membership, and exclusivity.

There are people who hardly know what challenge coins stand for.:

Because most organizations these days give their participants challenge coins, they see these medallions only as tokens of appreciations or a thing of honour. That is not bad at all. However, challenge coins hold more sentimental value to the brave people of military than to a normal organization member who is just looking for acceptance and promotion.

Challenge coins do not equate to a huge monetary value. It’s not like the usual coin that you can buy or bid for a higher price. It might not seem as much as the regular coin but the history behind it is enough to consider these medallions priced possessions. During the war eras, these coins play an important role in the duty of a soldier.

They presented challenges that determine whether a soldier is diligently following orders of carrying the medallions all the time.

In the earlier days of the military, the challenge coins or the medallions serve as a badge of alliance and brotherhood among members of a unit. It was imperative then that a volunteer or a soldier must always carry his medallion with him in the event that a challenge came up.

Military Coin

The members were always subjected to a challenge that involved their military coins. There were no formal rules regarding the challenge and they always differ depending on the organization. The purpose of the challenge was to raise discipline and morale within a unit.

During that time, the challenge can happen at any moment on a table or in bar. The challenge starts as soon as the challenger, usually the lieutenant or an officer, draws his coin and smacks it flat on the table. Tapping the coin on a surface or dropping a coin may also signify a call for a challenge to everyone who is present in the area.

All the challenged soldiers must show their military coins for the officer or the challenger to see. Failure to produce his medallion means having to buy drinks for the challenger and the other participants who are able to produce coins. On the contrary, the challenger must buy everyone a round of drinks in the event that all challenged soldier are able to show their military coins.

There are rules in some organizations which allow a challenged person to pass off a coin to another challenged person if he has an extra coin. Everyone who is participating in the challenge must also buy a person a round of drinks should that person able to steal a challenge coin from another person.

There are some rules which require every participant of the challenge to buy a drink for the person who possesses the highest-ranking coin. These high-ranking coins are passed on by an official to a soldier during a handshake. Some challenges are timed and has stricter, although informal, rules.

A coin will only count as a challenge coin if it’s placed somewhere that is not always accessible to the coin holder like tiny pouches around the neck. If the challenge coin is placed on the belt or is worn as an accessory, then it can’t be considered a challenge coin. Rules of a challenge aren’t always the same in every unit. This is why complications occur when a person from another unit is challenged by a lieutenant from another unit.

Today, people who collect challenge coins practice the game in their own time. Whereas before, this challenge defines camaraderie and discipline in a unit, today they are considered a fun game where everyone can exercise attentiveness and discipline as well.

A Guide to Buying Long Island Homes for Sale

Many individuals wish to live in their own homes so that they will not have to live by the rules set by the owners of the ones that they are renting. People consider buying a home as a major purchase so a lot of thought should be given into this endeavor.

The following pointers will help you in the process of purchasing your first house from among the many Long Island homes for sale nowadays.

Long Island Homes for SaleFirst, you should check on your credit score. This is very important as you will most likely be obtaining a housing loan from a bank to finance your purchase. As a recommendation, you should be getting your credit score report once every year so that you will have an idea as to what your current score is. If you have a higher credit score, then, there is a big possibility of you getting that housing loan that you need. You will also be paying a lower monthly payment in this case. If not, then, you should start doing the necessary steps in order to improve it.

Most of the time, you will be making monthly payments for the amortization of your housing loan. For this matter, you also have to think about your monthly cash flow. You have to make sure that your monthly salary will be enough to pay for the monthly amortization cost. The monthly amortization should only be at least 30% of your total monthly salary.

As for the down-payment, it will always be a good idea to pay in cash. The down-payment is typically around 10% to 20% of the total purchase price of the house. If you have difficulties getting that money, then, you might have to reconsider your plans of buying a property at this time.

Even if you have evaluated that the monthly payment is affordable to your financial condition, you still have to look out for hidden costs. You will have to think about insurance, maintenance costs, as well as property taxes, among others. These things will surely add up to a significant amount, too.

You should considering hiring the service of a real estate agent for this endeavor. This professional can help prospective owners to look for the right Long Island homes for sale that will suit them. You must spend a great deal of effort and time in searching for the best professional. Such professional must have enough experiences in this industry. Most importantly, he or she must be very knowledgeable about the place that you are keeping an eye on.

You have to specify what you want for a house. You have to specify how many rooms you need, the dimensions of the structure, the number of toilets, and others. You may also consider the location of the house, such as if you want it to be near your office or near the school of your children. No matter what you want for a house, you should be specific about it. This way, the real estate agent will be able to find such home for you. You will also need to provide him or her with the budget that you intend to set for this purchase. A good professional will be able to find a property that has all or most of the things you want yet is still within your budget.

Once such property has been found, you should be personally visiting and inspecting it. You may experience visiting several Long Island homes for sale at this point, especially if multiple properties with the same features have been found by your agent. After picking out the one that you personally like among the numerous Long Island homes for sale, then, you will have to carefully read the sales contract before you sign it. You also have to keep an eye on closing costs in this state, such as inspection costs, property transfer taxes, and others.

How to be a keynote speaker

Being a keynote speaker is not a joke. It takes time as well as effort to become one. However, this does not mean that you can’t become a keynoter. You have every reason to aspire becoming one, since becoming a keynote speaker is such a great achievement. You get to travel to different places, most especially if clients from far places invite you to do some talks to their events. But most importantly, you can impart information to different people and even inspire them through your speech.

As we all might have already heard before, speakers are not born but rather made. While it is true that there are some people who are naturally outgoing and who can just stand up and speak in front of a large group of people and there are some who are otherwise, each and every one of us still have equal chances of becoming a speaker. So, how does one become a keynote speaker, then?

First off, you have to be good at what you do. If you know that doing speeches is not your thing, how can you become a speaker, then? Before anything else, you first have to know what you are doing and then make sure that you can do it, or much better, you are good at it. Clients will hire you as a speaker because they believe that you can pull off a good presentation. On your end, you have to make sure that you won’t let the client down.

keynote-speakerMore than being good at it, though, is that you also have to be passionate about doing it. Even if you know that you can do it, if you know in yourself that you are not interested enough to actually do it, then you will not get anywhere. You have to enjoy what you do. As what they usually say, if you enjoy your work, you will not feel like you are working at all.

Moreover, as an aspiring keynote speaker, you should also be familiar with your own strengths and weaknesses. Identify your niche; know which area you are good at. If you believe that you are good at motivating people, then you can be a motivational Keynote speaker  Of course, you have to put yourself into something that you are passionate about, because this will also have an impact on how you will perform. If you are not that confident in yourself when it comes to promotional speeches, then it is best if you will not put yourself into that area. Additionally, identifying your weaknesses can help you hone your skills as a speaker. Figuring out your weaknesses should not put you down; rather, it should motivate you to do your best.

You also have to be entertaining so that your audience will be willing enough to devote their time listening to you. You can be funny. Always remember that humor is one of the most important ingredients of a good speech. People always appreciate good humor. “As a keynote speaker, one of my favorite things to do is make my audience laugh,” shares speaker Stuart Knight. “Without humor, you will only be a mediocre professional speaker,” he adds.

But of course, the level of entertainment that you would include in your presentation still depends on what type of audience you have as well as what theme or purpose the event has. Something can be entertaining to you but not to your audience. (There are also times when it can be offensive to them.)

Just always keep in mind that you do not need to be the best speaker out there (as there can never really be the “best one”); you only have to be an effective speaker. You should be true to what you are doing, and everything else will just follow naturally.

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators in Sports

Clinical experts created Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as an alternative to steroids. Athletes and scientists alike are engaged in a SARMs search, attempting to find a substitute to anabolic steroids (which cause adverse reactions such as acne, gynecomastia and male baldness). Users can take SARMs through oral route, which further contributes to its growing popularity.

The World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) listed SARMs among drugs that could potentially be abused. Researchers conducted a SARMs search, which have led to the discovery of Andarine and Ostarine. Both of these investigational drugs are still in their clinical phase and not yet approved for human consumption.

drugsSuch drugs are accessible in online trading platforms uniquemicals despite the ongoing clinical research, luring athletes in. The drugs promise to give a competitive advantage in performance. It is not surprising to find out several cases of athletes who were tested positive for SARMs, having traces of such substances in their urine. Sports federation has banned Nikita Novikov, a Russian cyclist from joining a competition because of using SARMs. Likewise, Bobby-Gaye Wilkins, a Jamaican athlete was positive for SARMs use. Consequently, the Sports Council prohibited him from joining the championship game in 2010.

These cases are proof that athletes are into a SARMs search to gain advantage over competitors with their enhanced performance. Abuse of drugs in sports started in 1954 when weightlifters used testosterone.

Here are the advantages of SARMS in sports:


SARMs are potential drugs for treating illnesses such as atrophy, cachexia and sarcopenia. In sports, athletes using the chemical experience an increase in their muscles while losing weight. In addition, SARMs do not damage the liver or increase the blood pressure. Hence, these drugs are essentially safe to use for longer periods (than anabolic steroids).


The drug can increase muscles to about eight pounds in an eight-week cycle.


SARMs decrease calories without affecting the muscles and endurance.


SARMs are beneficial in healing bone muscles, thereby being considered as excellent drugs for the treatment of tendon and bone injuries acquired in sports.

•Significant increase in endurance

The effect on endurance is one of the primary reasons why WADA categorized it as a prohibited drug. Athletes gain increased energy within few days of taking the drugs.


SARMs can burn fat without decreasing muscle mass, making them a preferred compound by athletes.

The following are the possible side effects of SARMS:

•Visual disturbance

Some users reported visual disturbances such as temporary blindness during nighttime and having yellow-tinted vision. It disappears when you discontinue the drug. Some users report that it took their eyes about 5-10 minutes to adapt in a room with glaring lights.

•Cancer in rats

The current data from clinical trials are not adequate to support this claim.

Aside from their oral form, SARMs are also available in dermal patches or gels as alternative routes that will keep the liver healthy. Clinical study shows that patches are as effective as the oral SARMs.

The minimal side effects reported make such substances very popular among weightlifters, bodybuilders and athletes, despite being prohibited. The harmful effects of steroids triggered clinical experts to intensify their SARMs search. Clinical studies are currently focused towards developing several types of SARMS, but the conclusion about the entire mechanism of action is not yet available.

Sports authorities, on the other hand, are intensifying antidoping research to create various methods to detect the use of illegal substances. Furthermore, they aim to safeguard athletes who are not using the banned chemicals. Action plans include information campaigns regarding the pros and cons of the use of these chemicals.

Still, many athletes are looking forward to the positive outcome of the SARMs search. After all, those drugs might very well be the safest alternative to hazardous anabolic steroids.